# CHEMISTRY: COMPETENCIES/OBJECTIVES

## 1995-1996

### COMPETENCY 1. Evaluate the impact of science and technology on society.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
1-1. Assess a current, technological situation; listing underlying assumptions and consequences.
1-2. Evaluate the consequences of present courses of action.
1-3. Generate alternative actions to the present courses of action.
1-4. Select and explore specific problems and alternatives.
1-5. Evaluate specific solutions to problems and alternatives.

### COMPETENCY 2. Demonstrate awareness, and proper use, of laboratory safety techniques.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
2-1. Differentiate between safe and unsafe procedures, applications, and methods of disposal of chemicals.
2-2. Chose the appropriate safety equipment for specific laboratory situations.
2-3. Decide which safety and emergency procedures to follow in case of particular accidents including fires and hazardous material spills.
2-4. Demonstrate proper methods for carrying and moving chemicals and equipment.

### COMPETENCY 3. Apply System Internationale, "SI", units as used in chemistry.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
3-1. Identify the base units of the SI system and describe the standards for each.
3-2. Describe the concept of a derived quantity and its units, and identify the dimension (combination of base units) for any derived quantity,initially including area, volume and density.
3-3. Using dimension analysis, determine whether an equation is dimensionally valid, and establish the dimensions of a quantity.
3-4. Explain and give examples of the system of subdivision used in the SI system, including the use of prefixes to represent powers of ten.
3-5.Use conversion factors to convert quantities from one metric unit to another, and also between metric and English units.

### COMPETENCY 4. Apply the concept of uncertainty to measurements.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
4-1. Report measurements to the limit of the measuring instrument.
4-2. Report the degree of uncertainty of a measurement, and carry out mathematical operations with measurements containing stated uncertainties.
4-3. Determine the significant digits in a recorded measurement, and carryout mathematical operations using these measurements with answers rounded off to the correct number of significant digits.

### COMPETENCY 5. Categorize matter and its properties.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
5-1. Describe the general properties of matter.
5-2. Classify matter according to whether it is an element, a compound, or a mixture.
5-3. Define, calculate, and experimentally determine density for a variety of substances.
5-4. Distinguish between physical and chemical properties of matter.
5-5. Determine chemical and physical properties of substances by carrying out physical and chemical changes.
5-6. Use physical methods to separate the components of a mixture.
5-7. Write symbols for 55 common elements.

### COMPETENCY 6. Integrate the main features of atomic theory and the atomic mass scale.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
6-1. Describe the postulates of the modern atomic theory.
6-2. Relate the Laws of Conservation of Mass, Definite Composition, and Multiple Proportions to atomic theory.
6-3. Locate and describe the main components of the atom as used in chemistry.
6-4. Define isotope, and relate atomic number, mass number, and number of atomic particles to each other, and interpret andd write isotope symbols.
6-5. Calculate atomic mass from isotope abundances.
6-6. Design a relative mass scale similar to that of the atomic mass scale

### COMPETENCY 7. Apply rules of chemical nomenclature to writing formulas and naming compounds

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
7-1. Identify basic differences between atoms, molecules, and ions and classify compounds as being ionic or molecular.
7-2. Write names of ionic and binary covalent compounds from their formulas using older system of prefixes and suffixes and the newer IUPAC system.
7-3. Use ion-charge method to write formulas for ionic compounds.
7-4. Write formulas for binary covalent compounds.

### COMPETENCY 8. Utilize the Periodic Table to determine properties of an element, or a set of elements.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
8-1. Describe the events leading to the modern day arrangement of the periodic table.
8-2. Describe periodic trends of the general characteristics of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
8-3. Experimentally determine an activity series of metals.

### COMPETENCY 9. Categorize chemical reactions and write balanced equations for reactions.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
9-1. Write and balance chemical equations when given reactants and products.
9-2. Classify those equations that come under the heading of synthesis, decomposition, replacement, and ionic reactions.
9-3. Predict the products of chemical reactions when given the reactants.
9-4. Define oxidation and reduction, and identify any species undergoing oxidation or reduction, and identify the oxidizing and reducing agents.
9-5. Use solubility rules to predict the formation of insoluble products, and the activity series to predict the occurrence of replacement reactions.
9-6. Relate complete and incomplete combustion to oxidation.
9-7. Carry out examples of each kind of reaction, and write balanced equations for each.

### COMPETENCY 10. Apply the mole concept to calculations involving masses and/or numbers of atoms, molecules, or formula units.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
10-1. Relate Avogadro's number to the atomic mass scale.
10-2. Convert numbers of atoms and molecules to masses by using the mole, and vice versa.
10-3. State the masses of atoms or molecules in terms of molar masses.
10-4. Calculate, and prepare solutions of known molarity.

### COMPETENCY 11. Apply the mole concept to calculations involving masses and/or numbers of atoms, molecules, or formula units.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES 11-1. Distinguish between empirical and molecular formulas.
11-2. Experimentally determine the empirical formula of an ionic compound.
11-3. Calculate percentage composition of a compound from its formula, and from experimental data.
11-4. Calculate empirical and molecular formulas from experimental data.

### COMPETENCY 12. Apply stoichiometry experimentally and in calculations.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
12-1. Calculate mass relationships based on balanced chemical equations.
12-2. Determine the limiting reactant, and the theoretical yield for chemical reactions.
12-3. Experimentally determine the mole ratio for a chemical reaction, and use it to determine the equation or the reaction.

### COMPETENCY 13. Apply the principles of thermochemistry in calculations and in the laboratory.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
13-1. Relate the Law of Conservation of Energy to Chemical Processes.
13-2. Describe the transfer of energy between reaction systems and their surroundings.
13-3. Distinguish between exothermic and endothermic reactions, and relate them to the enthalpy of a system.
13-4. State the three Laws of Thermochemistry, and apply them to calculations of enthalpy changes.
13-5. Calculate H for a reaction using specific heats and heats of formation.
13-6. Experimentally measure heat flow using a calorimeter, and use the measurements to write a thermochemical equation for the reaction.
13-7. Calculate "q" and E for a system according to the First Law of Thermodynamics.

### COMPETENCY 14. Predict the spontaneity of reactions.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
14-1. Define and calculate H and S for a reaction.
14-2. Use the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation to calculate the free energy change for a reaction.
14-3. Given, or having calculated H and S, determine the temperature at which a reaction is at equilibrium at one atmosphere.
14-4. Describe how the signs of H, S, and G relate to the spontaneity of a reaction.
14-5. Determine the maximum efficiency of a heat engine using the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

### COMPETENCY 15. Characterize the electronic structure of the atom

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
15-1. State and interpret the postulates of the Quantum Theory.
15-2. Relate energy differences, wavelength, and frequencies of EMR.
15-3. Describe the atomic spectrum of hydrogen in terms of the Bohr model, and calculate energy transitions for Lyman and Balmer series.
15-4. Describe the wave nature of electrons according to deBroglie, Planck, and Schrodinger.
15-5. Identify the four quantum numbers and relate each in terms of energy differences and mathematical interpretation.
15-6. Write electron configurations for elements.
15-7. Use Hund's rule to draw orbital diagrams for electrons in an atom.
15-8. Experimentally determine the wavelengths and frequencies line spectrum of selected elements.

### COMPETENCY 16. Relate nuclear processes to nuclear power.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
16-1. Write nuclear equations showing a, b and g-emissions.
16-2. Relate nuclear decay to first order kinetics.
16-3. Relate E = mc2 to nuclear thermochemistry.
16-4. Compare nuclear fission to nuclear fusion.
16-5. Consider use of nuclear power with reactor accidents and waste disposal.

### COMPETENCY 17. Relate ionic and covalent bonding to the electronic structure of atoms and the ionic and/or molecular compounds they form.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
17-1. Describe the formation of cations and anions, and relate it to electronegativity and position on the periodic table.
17-2. Relate H of ionic compounds to their lattice energies.
17-3. Write Lewis structures to show the covalent bonding in molecules and polyatomic
17-4. Determine the polarity of covalent bonds from electronegativities.
17-5. Compare bond lengths of covalent bonds.
17-6. Use bond energies to calculate &DeltaH for the formation of molecular compounds.
17-7. Experimentally determine the number of ionizable hydrogens in a compound.

### COMPETENCY 18. Determine the shape of molecules and describe the distribution of the valence electrons according to atomic and molecular orbital theories.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
18-1. Use VSEPR model to predict the geometric shape of simple molecules and polyatomic ions.
18-2. Construct models of molecules and polyatomic ions to illustrate their predicted geometric shapes.
18-3. Predict the polarity of molecules by using the VESPR model for molecules containing polar covalent bonds.
17-4. Describe covalent bonding in terms of atomic orbitals: sp, sp2, sp3 hybrid orbitals, sigma and pi bonds, and expanded octets.
18-5. Use the molecular orbital theory to explain the bonding in paramagnetic molecules.
18-6. Experimentally relate solubilities of solutes in solvents to their polarities.

### COMPETENCY 19. Characterize the properties of chemical systems that reach equilibrium in the gaseous phase.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
19-1. Write the expression for Kc from the balanced equation for a reaction involving gases.
19-2. Calculate Kc from equilibrium concentrations of all species, or from original concentrations of all species and the equilibrium concentration of one species.
19-3. Predict the direction a chemical system will move to reach equilibrium when the value of Kc is known.
19-4. Predict the equilibrium concentration of one species when given those of all other species when the value of Kc is known.
19-5. Predict the equilibrium concentrations of all species when given their original concentrations and when the value of Kc is known.
19-6. Using LeChatelier's Principle, predict the effect of a change in the number of moles, volume, or temperature upon the position of an equilibrium.
19-7. Experimentally determine Kc for an equilibrium system.
19-8. Relate the standard free energy change for a reaction to the equilibrium constant.

### COMPETENCY 20. Describe the properties of acids and bases.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
20-1. Relate the acidic and basic properties of aqueous solutions to the dissociation of water.
20-2. Carry out calculations involving pH and pOH.
20-3. Compare strong and weak acids.
20-4. Compare strong and weak bases.
20-5. Predict acidity or basicity of salt solutions (cations and anions).
20-6. Write equations for reactions for reactions between strong acids-strong bases, strong acids-weak bases, and weak acids-strong bases.
20-7. Carry out acid-base titrations and write equations for the reactions.
20-8. Compare Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis theories of acids.

### COMPETENCY 21. Apply properties of systems at equilibrium to dissociation of acids and bases.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
21-1. Write the equilibrium expression for dissociation of weak acids and calculate Ka.
21-2. Calculate [H+] in solutions of weak acids when given Ka.
21-3. Calculate [H+] in buffered solutions.
21-4. Write the equilibrium expression for the dissociation of weak bases and calculate Kb.
21-5. Calculate [OH-] in solutions of weak bases when given Ka.
21-6. Relate Ka and Kb.

### COMPETENCY 22. Describe the properties of solutions and carry out calculations related to these properties.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
22-2. Distinguish between electrolytes and nonelectrolytes.
22-3. Carry out calculations involving solution concentrations in mole fractions, molality, and/or molarity.
22-4. Describe the factors that affect the solubility of a solute in a particular solvent.
22-5. Determine the concentration of an unknown solution by using the Spec 20 and Beer's Law
22-6. Describe the colligative properties of solutions.
22-7. Experimentally determine the molar mass of an unknown solute by freezing point depression and boiling point elevation.

### COMPETENCY 23. Describe oxidation-reduction reactions.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
23-1. Balance redox reactions by half-reaction method.
23-2. Experimentally carry out a redox titration.
23-3. Relate corrosion to oxidation-reduction and how it may be prevented.

### COMPETENCY 24. Relate the production of electrical energy to chemical reactions.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
24-1. Express electricical values in terms of SI units.
24-2. Use a cell diagram to represent an electrochemical cell.
24-3. Construct an electrochemical cell and measure its output.
24-4. Use the Nernst Equation in electrochemical calculations.
24-5. Compare electrochemical cells with fuel cells.

### COMPETENCY 25. Identify and characterize the factors that affect reaction rate.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
25-1. Determine the order of a reaction when given the initial rate as a function of concentration of a reaction.
25-2. Calculate, for a first order reaction, the concentration of a reactant after a given time when given the original concentration and the rate constant.
25-3. Calculate, for a first order reaction, the time required for the concentration to drop by a given amount when given the rate constant.
25-4. When given either the half-life or the rate constant for a first order reaction, claculate the other quantity.
25-5. Experimentally determine the order of a reaction.
25-6. Relate ozone depletion to CFCs and chlorine photochemistry.
25-7. Compare homogeneous with heterogeneous catalysts, and their affects on reaction rates.

### COMPETENCY 26. Describe gases in terms of the kinetic theory of gases, apply the gas laws and the Ideal Gas Equation to problems, and compare real gases to ideal gases.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
26-1. Define pressure and relate to kinetic theory.
26-2. Describe the effect of temperature on pressure and volume of gases.
26-3. Apply mole-volume relationship of gases to gas-phase reactions.
26-4. Describe the relationship between pressure and volume of gases (Boyle's Law).
26-5. Combine Boyle's, Charles, and Avogadro's laws of gases into the ideal gas law.
26-6. Describe difussion of gases and relate to Graham's Law.
26-7. Describe mixtures of gases in terms of Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure.
26-8. Relate density of gases to molar volume and molar mass.
26-9. Describe the operation of mercury barometers.
26-10. Relate motion of molecules to the Boltzman distribution and temperature.
26-11. Compare the behavior of real gases to the ideal and relate to the van der Waals equation.

Gwen Sibert
Roanoke Valley Governor's School
gsibert@pen.k12.va.us