A mole (also known as Avogadro's Number) is the number that is used in making calculations involving atoms and molecules. Given the relatively microscopic size of the particles, it would be rather difficult (read: utterly pointless) to calculate amounts in terms of numbers of atoms. So, we use the mole.
A mole, (mol for short) is equal to (all together now) 6.022 x 1023 atoms or molecules.
The atomic mass given for an element on the periodic table measured out in grams is equal to one mole of atoms of that element.
Thus, the Molar Mass (MM) of elements and compounds is the mass, in grams, equal to the atomic and formula masses of those elements and compounds. The unit of Molar Mass is grams/mole. Click here for Practice in Calculating Molar Masses.
Empirical and Molecular Formulas
Believe it or not, there is more than one kind of chemical formula (insert a sharp gasp of surprise here). Judging from the heading of this section, they would be empiricaland molecular formulas. Empirical formulas give the lowest whole number ratio of the atoms in a compound, whereas the molecular formula gives the exact composition of one molecule.
Empirical formulas can be calculated using experimental data:
Divide through each value by the smallest number of moles to get a 1 : 1.001 : 2.999 ratio, which rounds of nicely to give the formula BaCO3
Molecular formulas can be calculated using empirical formulas:
to find the number of CH units in the compound:
# CH units = (104 g/mol)(1 mol/13.0 g) = 8.00
Molecular formula = 8(CH) or C8H8