*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

1-1. Assess a current, technological situation; listing underlying assumptions and consequences.

1-2. Evaluate the consequences of present courses of action.

1-3. Generate alternative actions to the present courses of action.

1-4. Select and explore specific problems and alternatives.

1-5. Evaluate specific solutions to problems and alternatives.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

2-1. Differentiate between safe and unsafe procedures, applications, and methods of
disposal of chemicals.

2-2. Chose the appropriate safety equipment for specific laboratory situations.

2-3. Decide which safety and emergency procedures to follow in case of particular
accidents including fires and hazardous material spills.

2-4. Demonstrate proper methods for carrying and moving chemicals and equipment.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

3-1. Identify the base units of the SI system and describe the standards for each.

3-2. Describe the concept of a derived quantity and its units, and identify the dimension
(combination of base units) for any derived quantity,initially including area, volume
and density.

3-3. Using dimension analysis, determine whether an equation is dimensionally valid,
and establish the dimensions of a quantity.

3-4. Explain and give examples of the system of subdivision used in the SI system, including
the use of prefixes to represent powers of ten.

3-5.Use conversion factors to convert quantities from one metric unit to another, and
also between metric and English units.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

4-1. Report measurements to the limit of the measuring instrument.

4-2. Report the degree of uncertainty of a measurement, and carry out mathematical operations
with measurements containing stated uncertainties.

4-3. Determine the significant digits in a recorded measurement, and carryout mathematical
operations using these measurements with answers rounded off to the correct number
of significant digits.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

5-1. Describe the general properties of matter.

5-2. Classify matter according to whether it is an element, a compound, or a mixture.

5-3. Define, calculate, and experimentally determine density for a variety of substances.

5-4. Distinguish between physical and chemical properties of matter.

5-5. Determine chemical and physical properties of substances by carrying out physical
and chemical changes.

5-6. Use physical methods to separate the components of a mixture.

5-7. Write symbols for 55 common elements.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

6-1. Describe the postulates of the modern atomic theory.

6-2. Relate the Laws of Conservation of Mass, Definite Composition, and Multiple Proportions
to atomic theory.

6-3. Locate and describe the main components of the atom as used in chemistry.

6-4. Define isotope, and relate atomic number, mass number, and number of atomic particles
to each other, and interpret andd write isotope symbols.

6-5. Calculate atomic mass from isotope abundances.

6-6. Design a relative mass scale similar to that of the atomic mass scale

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

7-1. Identify basic differences between atoms, molecules, and ions and classify compounds
as being ionic or molecular.

7-2. Write names of ionic and binary covalent compounds from their formulas using older
system of prefixes and suffixes and the newer IUPAC system.

7-3. Use ion-charge method to write formulas for ionic compounds.

7-4. Write formulas for binary covalent compounds.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

8-1. Describe the events leading to the modern day arrangement of the periodic table.

8-2. Describe periodic trends of the general characteristics of metals, nonmetals, and
metalloids.

8-3. Experimentally determine an activity series of metals.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

9-1. Write and balance chemical equations when given reactants and products.

9-2. Classify those equations that come under the heading of synthesis, decomposition,
replacement, and ionic reactions.

9-3. Predict the products of chemical reactions when given the reactants.

9-4. Define oxidation and reduction, and identify any species undergoing oxidation or
reduction, and identify the oxidizing and reducing agents.

9-5. Use solubility rules to predict the formation of insoluble products, and the activity
series to predict the occurrence of replacement reactions.

9-6. Relate complete and incomplete combustion to oxidation.

9-7. Carry out examples of each kind of reaction, and write balanced equations for each.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

10-1. Relate Avogadro's number to the atomic mass scale.

10-2. Convert numbers of atoms and molecules to masses by using the mole, and vice versa.

10-3. State the masses of atoms or molecules in terms of molar masses.

10-4. Calculate, and prepare solutions of known molarity.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*
11-1. Distinguish between empirical and molecular formulas.

11-2. Experimentally determine the empirical formula of an ionic compound.

11-3. Calculate percentage composition of a compound from its formula, and from experimental
data.

11-4. Calculate empirical and molecular formulas from experimental data.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

12-1. Calculate mass relationships based on balanced chemical equations.

12-2. Determine the limiting reactant, and the theoretical yield for chemical reactions.

12-3. Experimentally determine the mole ratio for a chemical reaction, and use it to determine
the equation or the reaction.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

13-1. Relate the Law of Conservation of Energy to Chemical Processes.

13-2. Describe the transfer of energy between reaction systems and their surroundings.

13-3. Distinguish between exothermic and endothermic reactions, and relate them to the
enthalpy of a system.

13-4. State the three Laws of Thermochemistry, and apply them to calculations of enthalpy
changes.

13-5. Calculate H for a reaction using specific heats and heats of formation.

13-6. Experimentally measure heat flow using a calorimeter, and use the measurements
to write a thermochemical equation for the reaction.

13-7. Calculate "q" and E for a system according to the First Law of Thermodynamics.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

14-1. Define and calculate H and S for a reaction.

14-2. Use the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation to calculate the free energy change for a reaction.

14-3. Given, or having calculated H and S, determine the temperature at which a reaction
is at equilibrium at one atmosphere.

14-4. Describe how the signs of H, S, and G relate to the spontaneity of a reaction.

14-5. Determine the maximum efficiency of a heat engine using the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

15-1. State and interpret the postulates of the Quantum Theory.

15-2. Relate energy differences, wavelength, and frequencies of EMR.

15-3. Describe the atomic spectrum of hydrogen in terms of the Bohr model, and calculate
energy transitions for Lyman and Balmer series.

15-4. Describe the wave nature of electrons according to deBroglie, Planck, and Schrodinger.

15-5. Identify the four quantum numbers and relate each in terms of energy differences
and mathematical interpretation.

15-6. Write electron configurations for elements.

15-7. Use Hund's rule to draw orbital diagrams for electrons in an atom.

15-8. Experimentally determine the wavelengths and frequencies line spectrum of selected
elements.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

16-1. Write nuclear equations showing a, b and g-emissions.

16-2. Relate nuclear decay to first order kinetics.

16-3. Relate E = mc^{2} to nuclear thermochemistry.

16-4. Compare nuclear fission to nuclear fusion.

16-5. Consider use of nuclear power with reactor accidents and waste disposal.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

17-1. Describe the formation of cations and anions, and relate it to electronegativity
and position on the periodic table.

17-2. Relate H of ionic compounds to their lattice energies.

17-3. Write Lewis structures to show the covalent bonding in molecules and polyatomic

17-4. Determine the polarity of covalent bonds from electronegativities.

17-5. Compare bond lengths of covalent bonds.

17-6. Use bond energies to calculate &DeltaH for the formation of molecular compounds.

17-7. Experimentally determine the number of ionizable hydrogens in a compound.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

18-1. Use VSEPR model to predict the geometric shape of simple molecules and polyatomic
ions.

18-2. Construct models of molecules and polyatomic ions to illustrate their predicted
geometric shapes.

18-3. Predict the polarity of molecules by using the VESPR model for molecules containing
polar covalent bonds.

17-4. Describe covalent bonding in terms of atomic orbitals: sp, sp2, sp3 hybrid orbitals,
sigma and pi bonds, and expanded octets.

18-5. Use the molecular orbital theory to explain the bonding in paramagnetic molecules.

18-6. Experimentally relate solubilities of solutes in solvents to their polarities.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

19-1. Write the expression for K_{c} from the balanced equation for a reaction involving gases.

19-2. Calculate K_{c} from equilibrium concentrations of all species, or from original concentrations of
all species and the equilibrium concentration of one species.

19-3. Predict the direction a chemical system will move to reach equilibrium when the
value of K_{c} is known.

19-4. Predict the equilibrium concentration of one species when given those of all other
species when the value of K_{c} is known.

19-5. Predict the equilibrium concentrations of all species when given their original
concentrations and when the value of K_{c} is known.

19-6. Using LeChatelier's Principle, predict the effect of a change in the number of
moles, volume, or temperature upon the position of an equilibrium.

19-7. Experimentally determine K_{c } for an equilibrium system.

19-8. Relate the standard free energy change for a reaction to the equilibrium constant.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

20-1. Relate the acidic and basic properties of aqueous solutions to the dissociation
of water.

20-2. Carry out calculations involving pH and pOH.

20-3. Compare strong and weak acids.

20-4. Compare strong and weak bases.

20-5. Predict acidity or basicity of salt solutions (cations and anions).

20-6. Write equations for reactions for reactions between strong acids-strong bases,
strong acids-weak bases, and weak acids-strong bases.

20-7. Carry out acid-base titrations and write equations for the reactions.

20-8. Compare Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis theories of acids.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

21-1. Write the equilibrium expression for dissociation of weak acids and calculate K_{a}.

21-2. Calculate [H+] in solutions of weak acids when given K_{a}.

21-3. Calculate [H+] in buffered solutions.

21-4. Write the equilibrium expression for the dissociation of weak bases and calculate
K_{b}.

21-5. Calculate [OH-] in solutions of weak bases when given K_{a}.

21-6. Relate K_{a} and K_{b}.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

22-2. Distinguish between electrolytes and nonelectrolytes.

22-3. Carry out calculations involving solution concentrations in mole fractions, molality,
and/or molarity.

22-4. Describe the factors that affect the solubility of a solute in a particular solvent.

22-5. Determine the concentration of an unknown solution by using the Spec 20 and Beer's Law

22-6. Describe the colligative properties of solutions.

22-7. Experimentally determine the molar mass of an unknown solute by freezing point
depression and boiling point elevation.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES
*
23-1. Balance redox reactions by half-reaction method.

23-2. Experimentally carry out a redox titration.

23-3. Relate corrosion to oxidation-reduction and how it may be prevented.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES
*
24-1. Express electricical values in terms of SI units.

24-2. Use a

24-3. Construct an electrochemical cell and measure its output.

24-4. Use the Nernst Equation in electrochemical calculations.

24-5. Compare electrochemical cells with fuel cells.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

25-1. Determine the order of a reaction when given the initial rate as a function of
concentration of a reaction.

25-2. Calculate, for a first order reaction, the concentration of a reactant after a
given time when given the original concentration and the rate constant.

25-3. Calculate, for a first order reaction, the time required for the concentration
to drop by a given amount when given the rate constant.

25-4. When given either the half-life or the rate constant for a first order reaction,
claculate the other quantity.

25-5. Experimentally determine the order of a reaction.

25-6. Relate ozone depletion to CFCs and chlorine photochemistry.

25-7. Compare homogeneous with heterogeneous catalysts, and their affects on reaction
rates.

*ENABLING OBJECTIVES*

26-1. Define pressure and relate to kinetic theory.

26-2. Describe the effect of temperature on pressure and volume of gases.

26-3. Apply mole-volume relationship of gases to gas-phase reactions.

26-4. Describe the relationship between pressure and volume of gases (Boyle's Law).

26-5. Combine Boyle's, Charles, and Avogadro's laws of gases into the ideal gas law.

26-6. Describe difussion of gases and relate to Graham's Law.

26-7. Describe mixtures of gases in terms of Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure.

26-8. Relate density of gases to molar volume and molar mass.

26-9. Describe the operation of mercury barometers.

26-10. Relate motion of molecules to the Boltzman distribution and temperature.

26-11. Compare the behavior of real gases to the ideal and relate to the van der Waals equation.

Gwen Sibert

Roanoke Valley Governor's School

gsibert@pen.k12.va.us